Serious Mental Illness Blog

An LIU Post Specialty Concentration

Posts tagged intelligence

24 notes

[Article of Interest] High Deprivation, Population Density And Inequality Found To Increase Rates Of SchizophreniaArticle adapted by Medical News TodayHigher rates of schizophrenia in urban areas can be attributed to increased deprivation, increased population density and an increase in inequality within a neighbourhood, new research reveals. The research, led by the University of Cambridge in collaboration with Queen Mary University of London, was published in the journal Schizophrenia Bulletin.Dr James Kirkbride, lead author of the study from the University of Cambridge, said: “Although we already know that schizophrenia tends to be elevated in more urban communities, it was unclear why. Our research suggests that more densely populated, more deprived and less equal communities experience higher rates of schizophrenia and other similar disorders. This is important because other research has shown that many health and social outcomes also tend to be optimal when societies are more equal.”The scientists used data from a large population-based incidence study (the East London first-episode psychosis study directed by Professor Jeremy Coid at the East London NHS Foundation Trust and Queen Mary, University of London) conducted in three neighbouring inner city, ethnically diverse boroughs in East London: City & Hackney, Newham, and Tower Hamlets.427 people aged 18-64 years old were included in the study, all of whom experienced a first episode of psychotic disorder in East London between 1996 and 2000. The researchers assessed their social environment through measures of the neighbourhood in which they lived at the time they first presented to mental health services because of a psychotic disorder. Using the 2001 census, they estimated the population aged 18-64 years old in each neighbourhood, and then compared the incidence rate between neighbourhoods.The incidence of schizophrenia (and other similar disorders where hallucinations and delusions are the dominant feature) still showed variation between neighbourhoods after taking into account age, sex, ethnicity and social class. Three environmental factors predicted risk of schizophrenia - increased deprivation (which includes employment, income, education and crime) increased population density, and an increase in inequality (the gap between the rich and poor).Results from the study suggested that a percentage point increase in either neighbourhood inequality or deprivation was associated with an increase in the incidence of schizophrenia and other similar disorders of around 4%.Dr Kirkbride added: “Our research adds to a wider and growing body of evidence that inequality seems to be important in affecting many health outcomes, now possibly including serious mental illness. Our data seems to suggest that both absolute and relative levels of deprivation predict the incidence of schizophrenia."East London has changed substantially over recent years, not least because of the Olympic regeneration. It would be interesting to repeat this work in the region to see if the same patterns were found."The study also found that risk of schizophrenia in some migrant groups might depend on the ethnic composition of their neighbourhood. For black African people, the study found that rates tended to be lower in neighbourhoods where there were a greater proportion of other people of the same background. By contrast, rates of schizophrenia were lower for the black Caribbean group when they lived in more ethnically-integrated neighbourhoods. These findings support the possibility that the socio-cultural composition of our environment could positively or negatively influence risk of schizophrenia and other similar disorders.Dr John Williams, Head of Neuroscience and Mental Health at the Wellcome Trust said: “This research reminds us that we must understand the complex societal factors as well as the neural mechanisms that underpin the onset of mental illness, if we are to develop appropriate interventions.”

[Article of Interest] High Deprivation, Population Density And Inequality Found To Increase Rates Of Schizophrenia
Article adapted by Medical News Today

Higher rates of schizophrenia in urban areas can be attributed to increased deprivation, increased population density and an increase in inequality within a neighbourhood, new research reveals. The research, led by the University of Cambridge in collaboration with Queen Mary University of London, was published in the journal Schizophrenia Bulletin.
Dr James Kirkbride, lead author of the study from the University of Cambridge, said: “Although we already know that schizophrenia tends to be elevated in more urban communities, it was unclear why. Our research suggests that more densely populated, more deprived and less equal communities experience higher rates of schizophrenia and other similar disorders. This is important because other research has shown that many health and social outcomes also tend to be optimal when societies are more equal.”
The scientists used data from a large population-based incidence study (the East London first-episode psychosis study directed by Professor Jeremy Coid at the East London NHS Foundation Trust and Queen Mary, University of London) conducted in three neighbouring inner city, ethnically diverse boroughs in East London: City & Hackney, Newham, and Tower Hamlets.
427 people aged 18-64 years old were included in the study, all of whom experienced a first episode of psychotic disorder in East London between 1996 and 2000. The researchers assessed their social environment through measures of the neighbourhood in which they lived at the time they first presented to mental health services because of a psychotic disorder. Using the 2001 census, they estimated the population aged 18-64 years old in each neighbourhood, and then compared the incidence rate between neighbourhoods.
The incidence of schizophrenia (and other similar disorders where hallucinations and delusions are the dominant feature) still showed variation between neighbourhoods after taking into account age, sex, ethnicity and social class. Three environmental factors predicted risk of schizophrenia - increased deprivation (which includes employment, income, education and crime) increased population density, and an increase in inequality (the gap between the rich and poor).
Results from the study suggested that a percentage point increase in either neighbourhood inequality or deprivation was associated with an increase in the incidence of schizophrenia and other similar disorders of around 4%.
Dr Kirkbride added: “Our research adds to a wider and growing body of evidence that inequality seems to be important in affecting many health outcomes, now possibly including serious mental illness. Our data seems to suggest that both absolute and relative levels of deprivation predict the incidence of schizophrenia.
"East London has changed substantially over recent years, not least because of the Olympic regeneration. It would be interesting to repeat this work in the region to see if the same patterns were found."
The study also found that risk of schizophrenia in some migrant groups might depend on the ethnic composition of their neighbourhood. For black African people, the study found that rates tended to be lower in neighbourhoods where there were a greater proportion of other people of the same background. By contrast, rates of schizophrenia were lower for the black Caribbean group when they lived in more ethnically-integrated neighbourhoods. These findings support the possibility that the socio-cultural composition of our environment could positively or negatively influence risk of schizophrenia and other similar disorders.
Dr John Williams, Head of Neuroscience and Mental Health at the Wellcome Trust said: “This research reminds us that we must understand the complex societal factors as well as the neural mechanisms that underpin the onset of mental illness, if we are to develop appropriate interventions.”

Filed under Questions western written world emotions evolution Extreme education emotion emotional research resilience rethinking madness trauma theory theories therapy treatment unconscious intelligence internet illness psychology psychiatry psychoanalysis psychosis psychopharmacology psychopathology psychotic psychotherapy

62 notes

artfromtheedge:

The creators of the Serious Mental Illness blog invite you to submit your visual art, photography, video work, music, poetry, collage, or short fiction to Art from the Edge. 
Art from the Edge, a virtual gallery and resource center, is dedicated to art created in and about extreme mental states. It is an open and public world wide forum for artists to share their visual and written works and their personal stories with all those interested in the connection between creativity and “edge” states.
Much like art, which exists in a multitude of mediums and forms of expression, there are a plurality of “edge” states that inspire the artists who harbor them. For this reason, we leave the term completely open to our community’s interpretation, knowing from research and experience that this state could be driven by psychosis or trauma, or an altered state induced by drugs. It could be the offshoot of extreme depression or grief, or the aftermath of a spiritual or mystical state of consciousness.
Ultimately, we are interested in the artist’s individual experience and in his or her sense of what it is that drove the creative act. 
submissions@artfromtheedge.net
artfromtheedge.net

artfromtheedge:

The creators of the Serious Mental Illness blog invite you to submit your visual art, photography, video work, music, poetry, collage, or short fiction to Art from the Edge. 

Art from the Edge, a virtual gallery and resource center, is dedicated to art created in and about extreme mental states. It is an open and public world wide forum for artists to share their visual and written works and their personal stories with all those interested in the connection between creativity and “edge” states.

Much like art, which exists in a multitude of mediums and forms of expression, there are a plurality of “edge” states that inspire the artists who harbor them. For this reason, we leave the term completely open to our community’s interpretation, knowing from research and experience that this state could be driven by psychosis or trauma, or an altered state induced by drugs. It could be the offshoot of extreme depression or grief, or the aftermath of a spiritual or mystical state of consciousness.

Ultimately, we are interested in the artist’s individual experience and in his or her sense of what it is that drove the creative act. 

submissions@artfromtheedge.net

artfromtheedge.net

(Source: )

Filed under Questions western written emotions evolution Extreme emotion emotional rethinking madness research resilience theory theories talk Twitter tumblr unconscious intelligence internet illness psychology psychiatry psychoanalysis psychopharmacology psychopathology psychotherapy poetry painting poem paint

7 notes

[Article of Interest] Talk Therapy Touted as First-Line Treatment for Youth with Psychosis Risk
By Traci Pedersen
A small clinical trial led by an Australian researcher suggests that young people at very high risk for psychotic illness should engage in talk therapy as an initial treatment rather than take antipsychotic drugs.
Only about 36 percent of high-risk individuals will likely develop psychosis within three years, and many physicians are concerned about the prospect of treating everyone at risk with drugs, which come with side effects.  Another concern is that individuals will carry the label of mental illness unnecessarily.
“This shows it’s quite safe and reasonably effective to offer supportive psychosocial care to these patients,” said study author Dr. Patrick McGorry. There is “no evidence to suggest that antipsychotic medications are needed in first-line” treatment, he said.
The  trial included 115 patients of a clinic in Melbourne, Australia, for young people believed to be at “ultra-high risk” for a psychotic disorder such as schizophrenia. The study was open to people between the ages of 14 and 30 who met at least one of three criteria: having low-level psychotic symptoms, having had previous brief episodes of psychotic symptoms that went away on their own or having a close relative with a psychotic disorder along with low mental functioning during the past year.
The study compared three types of treatment: talk therapy focused on reducing depression symptoms and stress while building coping skills plus a low dose of the antipsychotic risperidone, or talk therapy plus a placebo pill or therapy emphasizing social and emotional support plus a placebo. The goal was to see how many patients in each group progressed to full-blown psychosis.
After a year, there was no notable difference between the groups, but about 37 percent of the patients dropped out of the study. McGorry, a professor at the Centre for Youth Mental Health at The University of Melbourne, said if the trial had included more people, significant differences between the groups might have come forth.
“The importance of detecting early signs and symptoms of a serious mental illness is not controversial,” said Matcheri Keshavan, M.D., a professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. “But the best way of treating or preventing it remains controversial.”
The rates of going on to full-blown psychosis—which ranged from about 10 percent to about 22 percent—were lower in all three groups than in previous studies.
The reasons for this aren’t clear, but McGorry said it’s possible that more participants will develop psychosis after the 12-month study period ends. Many of the study participants were also taking antidepressants, which may have eased psychotic symptoms.
Also, as with many trials, most patients showed poor adherence to the medications used, which may have influenced the results, the authors note.
In a 2010 study, McGorry found that fish oil supplements might prevent psychosis in the same type of at-risk individuals. Going forward, “what is needed is some way of finding predictive biomarkers that can tell who might be at the highest risk,” said Keshavan. “We need to understand their brains.”

[Article of Interest] Talk Therapy Touted as First-Line Treatment for Youth with Psychosis Risk

By Traci Pedersen

A small clinical trial led by an Australian researcher suggests that young people at very high risk for psychotic illness should engage in talk therapy as an initial treatment rather than take antipsychotic drugs.

Only about 36 percent of high-risk individuals will likely develop psychosis within three years, and many physicians are concerned about the prospect of treating everyone at risk with drugs, which come with side effects.  Another concern is that individuals will carry the label of mental illness unnecessarily.

“This shows it’s quite safe and reasonably effective to offer supportive psychosocial care to these patients,” said study author Dr. Patrick McGorry. There is “no evidence to suggest that antipsychotic medications are needed in first-line” treatment, he said.

The  trial included 115 patients of a clinic in Melbourne, Australia, for young people believed to be at “ultra-high risk” for a psychotic disorder such as schizophrenia. The study was open to people between the ages of 14 and 30 who met at least one of three criteria: having low-level psychotic symptoms, having had previous brief episodes of psychotic symptoms that went away on their own or having a close relative with a psychotic disorder along with low mental functioning during the past year.

The study compared three types of treatment: talk therapy focused on reducing depression symptoms and stress while building coping skills plus a low dose of the antipsychotic risperidone, or talk therapy plus a placebo pill or therapy emphasizing social and emotional support plus a placebo. The goal was to see how many patients in each group progressed to full-blown psychosis.

After a year, there was no notable difference between the groups, but about 37 percent of the patients dropped out of the study. McGorry, a professor at the Centre for Youth Mental Health at The University of Melbourne, said if the trial had included more people, significant differences between the groups might have come forth.

The importance of detecting early signs and symptoms of a serious mental illness is not controversial,” said Matcheri Keshavan, M.D., a professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. “But the best way of treating or preventing it remains controversial.”

The rates of going on to full-blown psychosis—which ranged from about 10 percent to about 22 percent—were lower in all three groups than in previous studies.

The reasons for this aren’t clear, but McGorry said it’s possible that more participants will develop psychosis after the 12-month study period ends. Many of the study participants were also taking antidepressants, which may have eased psychotic symptoms.

Also, as with many trials, most patients showed poor adherence to the medications used, which may have influenced the results, the authors note.

In a 2010 study, McGorry found that fish oil supplements might prevent psychosis in the same type of at-risk individuals. Going forward, “what is needed is some way of finding predictive biomarkers that can tell who might be at the highest risk,” said Keshavan. “We need to understand their brains.”

Filed under talk therapy illness supportive australia melbourne Questions western written emotions evolution Extreme rethinking madness research resilience trauma theory theories unconscious intelligence internet psychology psychiatry psychoanalysis psychosis psychopharmacology psychopathology psychotic psychotherapy post traumatic

8 notes

[Article of Interest] Is Facebook a Factor in Psychotic Symptoms?By American Friends of Tel Aviv UniversityTAU researcher connects computer communications and psychosisAs Internet access becomes increasingly widespread, so do related psychopathologies such as Internet addiction and delusions related to the technology and to virtual relationships. Computer communications such as Facebook and chat groups are an important part of this story, says Dr. Uri Nitzan of Tel Aviv University’s Sackler Faculty of Medicine and the Shalvata Mental Health Care Center in a new paper published in the Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences.In his study, the researcher presented three in-depth case studies linking psychotic episodes to Internet communications from his own practice. According to Dr. Nitzan, patients shared some crucial characteristics, including loneliness or vulnerability due to the loss of or separation from a loved one, relative inexperience with technology, and no prior history of psychosis or substance abuse. In each case, a connection was found between the gradual development and exacerbation of psychotic symptoms, including delusions, anxiety, confusion, and intensified use of computer communications.The good news is that all of the patients, who willingly sought out treatment on their own, were able to make a full recovery with proper treatment and care, Dr. Nitzan says.Behind the screenThe Internet is a free and liberal space that many individuals use on a daily basis and a growing part of a normal social life. But while technologies such as Facebook have numerous advantages, some patients are harmed by these social networking sites, which can attract those who are lonely or vulnerable in their day-to-day lives or act as a platform for cyber-bullying and other predatory behavior.All three of Dr. Nitzan’s patients sought refuge from a lonely situation and found solace in intense virtual relationships. Although these relationships were positive at first, they eventually led to feelings of hurt, betrayal, and invasion of privacy, reports Dr. Nitzan. “All of the patients developed psychotic symptoms related to the situation, including delusions regarding the person behind the screen and their connection through the computer,” he says. Two patients began to feel vulnerable as a result of sharing private information, and one even experienced tactile hallucinations, believing that the person beyond the screen was physically touching her.Some of the problematic features of the Internet relate to issues of geographical and spatial distortion, the absence of non-verbal cues, and the tendency to idealize the person with whom someone is communicating, becoming intimate without ever meeting face-to-face. All of these factors can contribute to a patient’s break with reality, and the development of a psychotic state.A changing social landscapeDr. Nitzan and his colleagues plan to do more in-depth research on Facebook, studying the features and applications that have the potential to harm patients emotionally or permit patients to cause emotional harm to others. Some psychotic patients use the Internet to disturb people, abusing their ability to interact anonymously, he says.Because social media are now such an important part of our culture, mental health professionals should not overlook their influence when speaking to patients, Dr. Nitzan counsels. “When you ask somebody about their social life, it’s very sensible to ask about Facebook and social networking habits, as well as Internet use. How people conduct themselves on the Internet is quite important to psychiatrists, who shouldn’t ignore this dimension of their patients’ behavior patterns.”

[Article of Interest] Is Facebook a Factor in Psychotic Symptoms?
By American Friends of Tel Aviv University

TAU researcher connects computer communications and psychosis
As Internet access becomes increasingly widespread, so do related psychopathologies such as Internet addiction and delusions related to the technology and to virtual relationships. Computer communications such as Facebook and chat groups are an important part of this story, says Dr. Uri Nitzan of Tel Aviv University’s Sackler Faculty of Medicine and the Shalvata Mental Health Care Center in a new paper published in the Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences.
In his study, the researcher presented three in-depth case studies linking psychotic episodes to Internet communications from his own practice. According to Dr. Nitzan, patients shared some crucial characteristics, including loneliness or vulnerability due to the loss of or separation from a loved one, relative inexperience with technology, and no prior history of psychosis or substance abuse. In each case, a connection was found between the gradual development and exacerbation of psychotic symptoms, including delusions, anxiety, confusion, and intensified use of computer communications.
The good news is that all of the patients, who willingly sought out treatment on their own, were able to make a full recovery with proper treatment and care, Dr. Nitzan says.

Behind the screen
The Internet is a free and liberal space that many individuals use on a daily basis and a growing part of a normal social life. But while technologies such as Facebook have numerous advantages, some patients are harmed by these social networking sites, which can attract those who are lonely or vulnerable in their day-to-day lives or act as a platform for cyber-bullying and other predatory behavior.
All three of Dr. Nitzan’s patients sought refuge from a lonely situation and found solace in intense virtual relationships. Although these relationships were positive at first, they eventually led to feelings of hurt, betrayal, and invasion of privacy, reports Dr. Nitzan. “All of the patients developed psychotic symptoms related to the situation, including delusions regarding the person behind the screen and their connection through the computer,” he says. Two patients began to feel vulnerable as a result of sharing private information, and one even experienced tactile hallucinations, believing that the person beyond the screen was physically touching her.
Some of the problematic features of the Internet relate to issues of geographical and spatial distortion, the absence of non-verbal cues, and the tendency to idealize the person with whom someone is communicating, becoming intimate without ever meeting face-to-face. All of these factors can contribute to a patient’s break with reality, and the development of a psychotic state.

A changing social landscape
Dr. Nitzan and his colleagues plan to do more in-depth research on Facebook, studying the features and applications that have the potential to harm patients emotionally or permit patients to cause emotional harm to others. Some psychotic patients use the Internet to disturb people, abusing their ability to interact anonymously, he says.
Because social media are now such an important part of our culture, mental health professionals should not overlook their influence when speaking to patients, Dr. Nitzan counsels. “When you ask somebody about their social life, it’s very sensible to ask about Facebook and social networking habits, as well as Internet use. How people conduct themselves on the Internet is quite important to psychiatrists, who shouldn’t ignore this dimension of their patients’ behavior patterns.”

Filed under facebook facebook.com myspace Questions western written article emotions evolution Extreme internet rethinking madness research resilience trauma theory theories unconscious intelligence psychology psychiatry psychoanalysis psychosis psychopharmacology psychopathology psychotic personality disorder psychotherapy Paranoid paranoia

262 notes

Violence and Mental Illness: The Facts

The discrimination and stigma associated with mental illnesses largely stem from the link between mental illness and violence in the minds of the general public, according to the U.S. Surgeon General (DHHS, 1999). The belief that persons with mental illness are dangerous is a significant factor in the development of stigma and discrimination (Corrigan, et al., 2002). The effects of stigma and discrimination are profound. The President’s New Freedom Commission on Mental Health found that, “Stigma leads others to avoid living, socializing, or working with, renting to, or employing people with mental disorders - especially severe disorders, such as schizophrenia. It leads to low self-esteem, isolation, and hopelessness. It deters the public from seeking and wanting to pay for care. Responding to stigma, people with mental health problems internalize public attitudes and become so embarrassed or ashamed that they often conceal symptoms and fail to seek treatment (New Freedom Commission, 2003).”

This link is often promoted by the entertainment and news media. For example, Mental Health America, (formerly the National Mental Health Association) reported that, according to a survey for the Screen Actors’ Guild, characters in prime time television portrayed as having a mental illness are depicted as the most dangerous of all demographic groups: 60 percent were shown to be involved in crime or violence. Also most news accounts portray people with mental illness as dangerous (Mental Health America, 1999). The vast majority of news stories on mental illness either focus on other negative characteristics related to people with the disorder (e.g., unpredictability and unsociability) or on medical treatments. Notably absent are positive stories that highlight recovery of many persons with even the most serious of mental illnesses (Wahl, et al., 2002). Inaccurate and stereotypical representations of mental illness also exist in other mass media, such as films, music, novels and cartoons (Wahl, 1995).

Most citizens believe persons with mental illnesses are dangerous. A longitudinal study of Americans’ attitudes on mental health between 1950 and 1996 found, “the proportion of Americans who describe mental illness in terms consistent with violent or dangerous behavior nearly doubled.” Also, the vast majority of Americans believe that persons with mental illnesses pose a threat for violence towards others and themselves (Pescosolido, et al., 1996, Pescosolido et al., 1999).

As a result, Americans are hesitant to interact with people who have mental illnesses. Thirty-eight percent are unwilling to be friends with someone having mental health difficulties; sixty-four percent do not want someone who has schizophrenia as a close co-worker, and more than sixty-eight percent are unwilling to have someone with depression marry into their family (Pescosolido, et al., 1996).

But, in truth, people have little reason for such fears. In reviewing the research on violence and mental illness, the Institute of Medicine concluded, “Although studies suggest a link between mental illnesses and violence, the contribution of people with mental illnesses to overall rates of violence is small,” and further, “the magnitude of the relationship is greatly exaggerated in the minds of the general population” (Institute of Medicine, 2006). For people with mental illnesses, violent behavior appears to be more common when there’s also the presence of other risk factors. These include substance abuse or dependence; a history of violence, juvenile detention, or physical abuse; and recent stressors such as being a crime victim, getting divorced, or losing a job (Elbogen and Johnson, 2009).

(Source: promoteacceptance.samhsa.gov)

Filed under violence Questions western emotions evolution Extreme rethinking madness research theory theories unconscious intelligence psychology psychiatry psychoanalysis psychosis psychopharmacology psychopathology psychotic personality disorder psychotherapy post traumatic Paranoid paranoia pharmacy addiction abuse affective anxiety antipsychotic

18 notes

[Article of Interest] Why Some Schizophrenia Patients are Unresponsive to Antipsychotic Drugs
By Traci Pedersen

Patients with schizophrenia who fail to respond to antipsychotic medications may have something in common — they appear to have normal levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine. 
Schizophrenia is typically associated with an overactive dopamine system, which means that the brain is processing abnormally high levels of dopamine. Traditional antipsychotic drugs attempt to normalize this process by blocking dopamine. However, about one-third of individuals with schizophrenia do not respond to this treatment, and until now, no study has focused on whether dopamine abnormality is present in patients resistant to antipsychotic treatment.
“Despite considerable scientific and therapeutic progress over the last 50 years, we still do not know why some patients with schizophrenia respond to treatment whilst others do not.
“Treatment resistance in such a disabling condition is one of the greatest clinical and therapeutic challenges to psychiatry, significantly affecting patients, their families and society in general,” said researchers from King’s College London’s Institute of Psychiatry.
“Our findings suggest that there may be a different molecular mechanism leading to schizophrenia in patients who do not respond to anti-psychotic medication. Identifying the precise molecular pathway particularly in these patients is of utmost importance and will help inform the development of much-needed novel treatments,” they added.
For the study, the researchers used PET scan imaging to investigate dopamine synthesis capacity in 12 patients with schizophrenia who did not respond to treatment, 12 who did, and 12 healthy controls. The results showed that schizophrenia patients whose illness was resistant to antipsychotic treatment have relatively normal levels of dopamine synthesis capacity.  This would explain why the dopamine-blocking antipsychotic medication was not effective in this group.
However, researchers say that the findings need to be confirmed in larger samples before the study can affect clinical practice. They add that future research will have to center around patients who have never taken antipsychotics in order to see whether presynaptic dopamine regulation was normal in patients in the treatment-resistant group at the beginning of the disorder, before any exposure to antipsychotic drugs.

[Article of Interest] Why Some Schizophrenia Patients are Unresponsive to Antipsychotic Drugs

By Traci Pedersen

Patients with schizophrenia who fail to respond to antipsychotic medications may have something in common — they appear to have normal levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine

Schizophrenia is typically associated with an overactive dopamine system, which means that the brain is processing abnormally high levels of dopamine. Traditional antipsychotic drugs attempt to normalize this process by blocking dopamine. However, about one-third of individuals with schizophrenia do not respond to this treatment, and until now, no study has focused on whether dopamine abnormality is present in patients resistant to antipsychotic treatment.

“Despite considerable scientific and therapeutic progress over the last 50 years, we still do not know why some patients with schizophrenia respond to treatment whilst others do not.

“Treatment resistance in such a disabling condition is one of the greatest clinical and therapeutic challenges to psychiatry, significantly affecting patients, their families and society in general,” said researchers from King’s College London’s Institute of Psychiatry.

“Our findings suggest that there may be a different molecular mechanism leading to schizophrenia in patients who do not respond to anti-psychotic medication. Identifying the precise molecular pathway particularly in these patients is of utmost importance and will help inform the development of much-needed novel treatments,” they added.

For the study, the researchers used PET scan imaging to investigate dopamine synthesis capacity in 12 patients with schizophrenia who did not respond to treatment, 12 who did, and 12 healthy controls. The results showed that schizophrenia patients whose illness was resistant to antipsychotic treatment have relatively normal levels of dopamine synthesis capacity.  This would explain why the dopamine-blocking antipsychotic medication was not effective in this group.

However, researchers say that the findings need to be confirmed in larger samples before the study can affect clinical practice. They add that future research will have to center around patients who have never taken antipsychotics in order to see whether presynaptic dopamine regulation was normal in patients in the treatment-resistant group at the beginning of the disorder, before any exposure to antipsychotic drugs.

Filed under Questions western emotions evolution Extreme rethinking madness research resilience antipsychotic trauma theory theories unconscious intelligence psychology psychiatry psychoanalysis psychosis psychopharmacology psychopathology psychotic personality disorder psychotherapy post traumatic Paranoid paranoia pharmacy apa addiction abuse

44 notes

artfromtheedge:

“Woman with Flowing Hair (Moods)”
By Matt Vaillette

Could you tell us a little about yourself?
I’m a bipolar artist. I create primarily for therapy, and it works quite well. You can find me at mebeingsocial.tumblr.com !!
Was your submission created about or in an extreme state? 
It was created to show the many volatile moods of bipolarity. This is how it feels not being able to rely on yourself, or your mental state. It also looks like a psychotic state to me. Any sort of negative/shocking mental state really.



Click here to submit your own artwork to Art from the Edge

artfromtheedge:

“Woman with Flowing Hair (Moods)”

By Matt Vaillette



Could you tell us a little about yourself?

I’m a bipolar artist. I create primarily for therapy, and it works quite well. You can find me at mebeingsocial.tumblr.com !!

Was your submission created about or in an extreme state? 

It was created to show the many volatile moods of bipolarity. This is how it feels not being able to rely on yourself, or your mental state. It also looks like a psychotic state to me. Any sort of negative/shocking mental state really.

Filed under Questions bipolar bipolarity art artiscreative creativity emotions evolution Extreme resilience rethinking madness theory theories unconscious intelligence psychology psychiatry psychoanalysis psychosis psychopathology psychotherapy visual therapy affective antipsychotic science serious mental illness Survivor strength Diagnostic

12 notes

artfromtheedge:

“A Killing Nightmare”
Could you tell us a little about yourself?
My name is Ashley Greene. I am 21 years old. I’m trying to get my life together, finish college to be a medical assistant or a phlebotomist. For the past 8 years of my life, I have made very poor choices and I have made a lot of mistakes that I have learned from. I enjoy doing art to pass time and keep myself busy as well as it being an emotional outlet.
Was your submission created about or in an extreme state? If yes, please elaborate below.
Yes. I had no idea that what was going on in my head was just a dream. I really thought that I was being killed. I think if it was enough to make me cry while I was sleeping, it must’ve been traumatic quite a good bit. Even after I realized that it wasn’t real, I was steal alive, and none of it had actually happened it was still frightening enough to make me still continue to cry.
Would you like to describe the process of creating your submission?
I used mixed media. I enjoy using many things to create my art. First, I drew the people in the outfits in india ink, leaving some places open for white and grey acrylic paint. I made a lighter wash from the india ink as well to use for shading of the characters and the background. For the lines of light I used food coloring (mixed to my own shades) as well as watercolor pencils.
Click Here for more about this piece!

artfromtheedge:

“A Killing Nightmare”

Could you tell us a little about yourself?

My name is Ashley Greene. I am 21 years old. I’m trying to get my life together, finish college to be a medical assistant or a phlebotomist. For the past 8 years of my life, I have made very poor choices and I have made a lot of mistakes that I have learned from. I enjoy doing art to pass time and keep myself busy as well as it being an emotional outlet.

Was your submission created about or in an extreme state? If yes, please elaborate below.

Yes. I had no idea that what was going on in my head was just a dream. I really thought that I was being killed. I think if it was enough to make me cry while I was sleeping, it must’ve been traumatic quite a good bit. Even after I realized that it wasn’t real, I was steal alive, and none of it had actually happened it was still frightening enough to make me still continue to cry.

Would you like to describe the process of creating your submission?

I used mixed media. I enjoy using many things to create my art. First, I drew the people in the outfits in india ink, leaving some places open for white and grey acrylic paint. I made a lighter wash from the india ink as well to use for shading of the characters and the background. For the lines of light I used food coloring (mixed to my own shades) as well as watercolor pencils.

Click Here for more about this piece!

(via artfromtheedge)

Filed under Questions western emotions evolution Extreme rethinking madness research resilience trauma theory theories unconscious intelligence psychology psychiatry psychoanalysis psychopharmacology psychopathology psychotherapy post traumatic painting pencil affective abuse anxiety art artist science serious mental illness statistical

9 notes

[Article of Interest] Brain Scans Support Freud: Guilt Plays Key Role in Depression
Posted on ScienceDaily [Excerpt] Scientists have shown that the brains of people with depression respond differently to feelings of guilt — even after their symptoms have subsided. University of Manchester researchers found that the brain scans of people with a history of depression differed in the regions associated with guilt and knowledge of socially acceptable behaviour from individuals who never get depressed.
Lead researcher Dr Roland Zahn, from the University’s School of Psychological Sciences, said: “Our research provides the first brain mechanism that could explain the classical observation by Freud that depression is distinguished from normal sadness by proneness to exaggerated feelings of guilt or self-blame.
"For the first time, we chart the regions of the brain that interact to link detailed knowledge about socially appropriate behaviour — the anterior temporal lobe — with feelings of guilt — the subgenual region of the brain — in people who are prone to depression."
“The scans revealed that the people with a history of depression did not ‘couple’ the brain regions associated with guilt and knowledge of appropriate behaviour together as strongly as the never depressed control group do,” said Dr Zahn, a MRC Clinician Scientist Fellow.
"Interestingly, this ‘decoupling’ only occurs when people prone to depression feel guilty or blame themselves, but not when they feel angry or blame others. This could reflect a lack of access to details about what exactly was inappropriate about their behaviour when feeling guilty, thereby extending guilt to things they are not responsible for and feeling guilty for everything.”

[Article of Interest] Brain Scans Support Freud: Guilt Plays Key Role in Depression

Posted on ScienceDaily

[Excerpt] Scientists have shown that the brains of people with depression respond differently to feelings of guilt — even after their symptoms have subsided. University of Manchester researchers found that the brain scans of people with a history of depression differed in the regions associated with guilt and knowledge of socially acceptable behaviour from individuals who never get depressed.

Lead researcher Dr Roland Zahn, from the University’s School of Psychological Sciences, said: “Our research provides the first brain mechanism that could explain the classical observation by Freud that depression is distinguished from normal sadness by proneness to exaggerated feelings of guilt or self-blame.

"For the first time, we chart the regions of the brain that interact to link detailed knowledge about socially appropriate behaviour — the anterior temporal lobe — with feelings of guilt — the subgenual region of the brain — in people who are prone to depression."

The scans revealed that the people with a history of depression did not ‘couple’ the brain regions associated with guilt and knowledge of appropriate behaviour together as strongly as the never depressed control group do,” said Dr Zahn, a MRC Clinician Scientist Fellow.

"Interestingly, this ‘decoupling’ only occurs when people prone to depression feel guilty or blame themselves, but not when they feel angry or blame others. This could reflect a lack of access to details about what exactly was inappropriate about their behaviour when feeling guilty, thereby extending guilt to things they are not responsible for and feeling guilty for everything.”

Filed under brain guilt scan freud Questions western emotions evolution Extreme research resilience rethinking madness trauma theory theories unconscious intelligence psychology psychiatry psychoanalysis psychosis psychopharmacology psychopathology psychotherapy depression depressed apa abuse affective anxiety

38 notes

artfromtheedge:

“Social Anxiety”
By atheoryofmind

Could you describe your submission?A collage I made a few years ago to express my severe social anxiety.Could you tell us a little about yourself?I had severe social anxiety all through adolescence and through part of college. I majored in psychology and was aware of the current treatment methods for anxiety disorders. I decided to do exposure therapy on myself at school so that I could interact with others more easily. A year and a half later, no one knew the difference. Today, at age 24, people have trouble believing me when I tell them I used to be really socially anxious- I’m opinionated, direct, and put myself out there.Was your submission created about or in an extreme state?.As I said, I was extremely socially anxious at the time, but also very lonely as a result, and hating myself for both.
Click here to submit your own artwork to Art from the Edge

artfromtheedge:

“Social Anxiety”

By atheoryofmind




Could you describe your submission?
A collage I made a few years ago to express my severe social anxiety.
Could you tell us a little about yourself?
I had severe social anxiety all through adolescence and through part of college. I majored in psychology and was aware of the current treatment methods for anxiety disorders. I decided to do exposure therapy on myself at school so that I could interact with others more easily. A year and a half later, no one knew the difference. Today, at age 24, people have trouble believing me when I tell them I used to be really socially anxious- I’m opinionated, direct, and put myself out there.
Was your submission created about or in an extreme state?.
As I said, I was extremely socially anxious at the time, but also very lonely as a result, and hating myself for both.



Click here to submit your own artwork to Art from the Edge

Filed under Questions western emotions evolution Extreme research resilience rethinking madness theory theories unconscious intelligence psychology psychiatry psychoanalysis psychopharmacology psychopathology psychotherapy collage anxiety social social anxeity affective art artist science substance strength DSM Diagnostic

87 notes

[Video of Interest] Stephen Fry: The Secret Life Of The Manic Depressive

Stephen Fry presents this documentary exploring the disease of manic depression; a little understood but potentially devastating condition affecting an estimated two percent of the population. Stephen embarks on an emotional journey to meet fellow sufferers, and discuss the literal highs and lows of being bi-polar. Celebrities such as Carrie Fisher and Richard Dreyfuss invite the comedian into their home to relate their stories.

In addition, Stephen looks into the lives of ordinary people trying to deal with the illness at work and home, and of course to the people studying manic depression in an effort to better control it. A fascinating, moving and ultimately very entertaining Emmy Award-winning programme.

Filed under Questions western video documentary emotions Extreme research resilience rethinking madness theory manic depressive stephen fry bipolar trauma theories unconscious intelligence psychology psychiatry psychoanalysis psychosis psychopharmacology psychopathology psychotic personality disorder psychotherapy post traumatic Paranoid apa

16 notes

Art from the Edge: This World Is Black and White

artfromtheedge:

This World Is Black and White

This world is black and white
With a fog of gray we can not fight
Madness on the edge
Falling like molten sludge
As if a volcano had erupted
unforseen, unprompted
Unwanted
An intrusive visitor to our mind
That burns away the sanity
Leaving a subtle shell
That hints at a hidden hell
That holds everything that ever was
Or ever will be
Inescapable rapture of every bit of promise
The genius child turns into a mad man
Incapable of his prospective talent
Unable to even remember what loss it is
That he laments



Could you describe your submission?
It is a free form poem about the affects that mental states can have on someones life, and the silent feeling of loss felt

Could you tell us a little about yourself?
I am a former soldier, a cancer survivor, i have adhd and tuerretes and i have always felt as if something wasnt quite right, this is the feeling my poems are about

Was your submission created about or in an extreme state?
It was indeed created about extreme mental states, as ive said ive never felt like everything was ok, so im not sure if i could say it was created in an extreme mental state or not

Would you like to describe the process of creating your submission?
Poetry has always just come to me, there are times i sleep with a notepad and pen because i will wake up from a dead sleep with an idea on my mind and be unable to sleep until ive written it down

Click here to submit your own artwork to Art from the Edge

(via artfromtheedge)

Filed under Questions written western evolution emotions extreme research resilience rethinking madness theory trauma theories unconscious intelligence poetry poem psychology pencil psychiatry psychoanalysis psychotherapy psychopharmacology psychopathology post traumatic art artist anxiety abuse science strength

79 notes

artfromtheedge:

“Dissolve”
By Breanna

Could you describe your submission?
A stylized drawing of Slenderman rising up from a black fog at the bottom of the page.
Could you tell us a little about yourself? 
My name is Breanna, I suffer from Generalized Anxiety Disorder as well as Major Depression with Psychotic elements, and an as yet undiagnosed mood instability. I have a 13-month old son named William who keeps me going.
Was your submission created about or in an extreme state?
I was in a depressed and slightly anxious state, I was also high. (This does not happen anymore, haha)
Would you like to describe the process of creating your submission?
I became anxious one night so I smoked and then sat down quietly and began to draw. This was one of the results.

Click here to submit your own artwork to Art from the Edge

artfromtheedge:

“Dissolve”

By Breanna


Could you describe your submission?

A stylized drawing of Slenderman rising up from a black fog at the bottom of the page.

Could you tell us a little about yourself? 

My name is Breanna, I suffer from Generalized Anxiety Disorder as well as Major Depression with Psychotic elements, and an as yet undiagnosed mood instability. I have a 13-month old son named William who keeps me going.

Was your submission created about or in an extreme state?

I was in a depressed and slightly anxious state, I was also high. (This does not happen anymore, haha)

Would you like to describe the process of creating your submission?

I became anxious one night so I smoked and then sat down quietly and began to draw. This was one of the results.



Click here to submit your own artwork to Art from the Edge

Filed under Questions evolution emotions research resilience rethinking madness theory trauma theories unconscious intelligence drawing pencil sketch psychology psychiatry psychoanalysis psychosis paranoia psychotic psychotherapy psychopharmacology psychopathology post traumatic art artist anxiety addiction abuse apa

37 notes

artfromtheedge:

“Delusions of Grandeur” (2010)
By Matt Vaillette

Could you describe your submission?
This was a spontaneous piece I created in 2010, during a manic episode. Midway through I decided it represents the delusions of grandeur most of us live with, manic or otherwise.
Could you tell us a little about yourself?
I’m a Bipolar artist. I focus on the experience of creating and think a lot about states of mind and their resulting artistic outcomes. I currently put all my work on mebeingsocial.tumblr.com.
Was your submission created about or in an extreme state?
This was created in a mild manic state.
Would you like to describe the process of creating your submission?
I (stupidly) triggered a manic episode through sleep deprivation in order to create in such a state. From there I rode the waves, and followed strong feelings until it was finished.

artfromtheedge:

“Delusions of Grandeur” (2010)

By Matt Vaillette



Could you describe your submission?

This was a spontaneous piece I created in 2010, during a manic episode. Midway through I decided it represents the delusions of grandeur most of us live with, manic or otherwise.

Could you tell us a little about yourself?

I’m a Bipolar artist. I focus on the experience of creating and think a lot about states of mind and their resulting artistic outcomes. I currently put all my work on mebeingsocial.tumblr.com.

Was your submission created about or in an extreme state?

This was created in a mild manic state.

Would you like to describe the process of creating your submission?

I (stupidly) triggered a manic episode through sleep deprivation in order to create in such a state. From there I rode the waves, and followed strong feelings until it was finished.

(via artfromtheedge)

Filed under Questions western evolution emotions research resilience rethinking madness theory trauma theories unconscious intelligence painting Paranoid psychology paint psychiatry psychoanalysis psychosis personality disorder psychotic psychotherapy psychopharmacology psychopathology art artist anxiety affective science strength

12 notes

Art from the Edge: I Do I Do


I Do I Do

I do I do

that’s what I said to you

but they carted us off in twos and three

on a train they took You and Me


chuffing us off like a jew

a jew to Dachau,Auchwitz, Belson too

separated at a line Me and You

those bastards gassed you

then they had me burn you


they shaved your hair, so no hair locks, from your blond hair, could I save from you

they took your clothes and jewelry too

Rudolph Franz probably wears them to this day too

proudly on his ring finger the fool


I buried my heart with you

those bastards took me away from you

and there was nothing I could do

all I have was a writing or two

to go with a few memories too


But I still love You yes, yes I do

I love You I do I do

(via artfromtheedge)

Filed under Questions written western emotions research resilience rethinking madness theories theory unconscious intelligence poetry poem psychology psychiatry plath psychoanalysis psychosis psychotic psychotherapy psychopathology art artist affective science strength Survivor schizophrenia depression Gifted